Fire protection facilities
Fire door refers to the door that can meet the requirements of fire stability, integrity and heat insulation in a certain period of time. It is located in the fire partition, evacuation stairwell, vertical shaft and other fire retardant dividers with certain fire resistance.
It is specially used to isolate the fire source in the building construction, which has a huge role for the fire fighting work. Once the fire happens, people can get the chance to escape through the fire door
Fire door refers to the door that can meet the requirements of fire stability, integrity and heat insulation in a certain period of time. It is located in the fire partition, evacuation stairwell, vertical shaft and other fire retardant dividers with certain fire resistance. 
In addition to the role of ordinary doors, fire doors have the effect of preventing the spread of fire and smoke diffusion, which can prevent the spread of fire within a certain time and ensure the evacuation of personnel.
Structure of composition
(1) Close the evacuation stairs leading to the walkway; Close the elevator room, the door leading to the front room and the front room leading to the corridor.
(2) Inspection doors of vertical pipeline Wells such as cable Wells, pipeline Wells, exhaust ducts and garbage channels.
(3) Divide fire zones and control the firewall and the door on the fire partition wall of the building area in the zoning. When the building is difficult to set up a firewall or fire doors, fire shutter doors should be used instead, and water curtain protection should be used at the same time.
(4) Specifications (such as GB 50016-2014 “Code for Fire Prevention in Building Design”) or design special requirements for fire and smoke proof partition door.
Basis of classification
There are many kinds of fire doors.
There are wooden fire doors, steel fire doors, steel fire doors, other fire doors, etc.;
Wooden fire door
fire resistant timber doorsets
Use refractory wood or refractory wood products for door frames, door frames and door panels.
Steel fire door
fire resistant steel doorsets
The door frame, door frame and door panel are made of steel materials. If the door is filled with material, it is filled with non-toxic and harmless fire insulation materials for human body, and the door is composed of fireproof hardware accessories with certain fire resistance.
Steel and wood fire doors
fire resistant timber doorsets with steel structure
Door frames, door frames and door panels are made of steel and refractory wood materials or refractory wood products.
Fire doors of other materials
other material fire resistant door sets
In addition to steel, refractory wood or refractory wood products in addition to inorganic non-combustible materials or part of the use of steel, refractory wood, refractory wood products to make door frame, door frame, door panel, if the door filler material, fill the non-toxic and harmless to human body fire insulation material, and with fireproof hardware accessories composed of a certain fire performance of the door.
Function of Use
There are access control fire doors, indoor fire doors, explosion-proof fire doors, fast-locking fire doors, fast opening fire doors in case of fire, etc.
There are electronic fire doors, built-in fire door closed multifunctional fire doors, etc.;
According to the opening state is divided into normally closed fire door and normally open fire door. Normally closed fire doors are generally composed of fire doors, door frames, door closers, sealing strips, and so on. Double or more normally closed fire doors are also equipped with sequencer. Normally closed fire door usually does not need electrical professional to provide automatic control design, but there are also some special cases such as: evacuation channel normally closed fire door, when some large builders have anti-theft and other management requirements should be designed by electrical professional, as far as possible to reduce safety risks. For normally open fire door, it is in addition to all the accessories with normally closed fire door, but also must increase the fire door release switch, and must be provided by the electrical professional automatic control design. It is usually applied to evacuation channels with more people and logistics.
Heat insulation condition
insulated fire doors (Class A) fully insulated doorsets
Within the specified time, can meet the fire integrity and heat insulation requirements of the fire door.
partially insulated fire doors (Class B) partially insulated doorsets
Fire doors that meet the requirements of fire integrity and heat insulation within 0.50 h.
Non-insulated fire doors (Class C) have no insulated doorsets
Within the specified time, can meet the requirements of fire integrity of the fire door.
Wood fire door is made of refractory wood or refractory wood products as door frame, door frame, door panel. If the door is filled with material, it is filled with non-toxic and harmless fire insulation material for human body, and it is composed of fireproof hardware accessories with certain fire resistance.
The lap size of door fan and door frame should not be less than 12mm; The clearance of door fan and door frame with hinge side shall not be greater than the size tolerance stipulated in the design drawings; The clearance between the door door and the lock side of the door frame shall not be greater than the dimensional tolerance specified in the design drawings; The clearance between the door and the upper frame should not be greater than 3mm; The gap between the doors of double and multiple doors should not be greater than 3mm; The clearance between the door door and the bottom frame or the ground should not be greater than 9mm; Gap between door fan and door frame fitting surface: the gap between door fan and door frame with hinge side, lock side and the fitting surface of the upper frame should not be greater than 3mm; The plane height difference between the door and the door frame: on the fire door opening surface, the plane height difference between the door frame and the door should not be greater than 1mm. 
Wood fire door refers to the door frame, door frame and door panel made of wood or wood products, and the fire resistance limit reaches the national regulations. Some small deviations between wooden fire doors can not be wrong, perhaps is a small detail problem, it may not reach the national standard.
Fire protection time
The fire time of the fire door is mainly determined by the fire board. In this respect, the performance of the fire board of the Class A fire door is generally better than that of the fire board of the class B fire door, so the overall performance is stronger than that of the class B fire door. In addition, Class A fire door is especially suitable for those who require fine grinding before electroplating, excellent vibration, hand tools mirror polishing, electric tube mirror polishing and other occasions, such as all kinds of furniture hardware accessories vibration light, hand tools cutting polishing, daily products, self painting accessories surface vibration light, etc.
Class A fire door with the function of the door frame material, because the specifications of the door frame can be customized according to the needs of customers flexibly, the design of door size is more convenient, labor saving, time saving.
First, the installation of fire doors should be in accordance with the type of fire doors used, take the appropriate installation method.
Two, the door frame of the fire door can be fixed with expansion bolts and the wall, or the iron parts can be embedded at the entrance of the wall when the wall is being built, and the installation and the door frame connector can be welded firmly.
3. No matter what connection mode is adopted between the door frame and the wall, there should be no less than 3 anchorage points on each side, and they should be firmly connected.
Four, when installing the fire door, it should be straightened and hoisted. After the size is appropriate, it will be temporarily fixed, corrected and adjusted. After no error, it can be connected and anchored.
Five, the sliding door installation after the push and pull flexible; The flat door is convenient for opening and tight and firm for closing.
Six, the fire door must be installed on the door closing device, to open the door to install the sequencer.
Seven, the handle on the fire door, fire lock and other hardware accessories, must be complete.
Eight, the clearance with the ground plane should be no more than 5mm.
The price of steel fire door is moderate, but its since the major, open more laborious and monotonous style, not beautiful enough, so it is used in industrial buildings and general grade civil buildings, or buildings with low aesthetic requirements, usually small flow of people (such as computer rooms, garages, etc.); On the contrary, the light weight of the wooden fire door, flexible opening and closing and appearance can be decorative, more patterns, but the price is higher, more used for middle and high-grade civil buildings or important occasions in the building. Generally, each diaphragm fire door applies to the maximum opening size of about 3.3m: height, width – single fan 1.1m, double fan 3.0m. In addition to setting fire doors in strict accordance with the occasions, positions, widths, grades and opening directions required by the specifications, attention should be paid to the following:
Fire doors are generally located on evacuation paths (such as stairwell, front room, walkway, etc.). If you do not pay attention to the detail design of the building, it may cause the door door to block the evacuation path and reduce its effective width after opening, which violates the basic requirements of personnel evacuation. This phenomenon is particularly prominent in the turning point of evacuation path and high-rise residential buildings, which should be paid attention to and avoided.
The evacuation port leading to the adjacent partition is faulty
Under certain conditions, when there is a Class A fire door leading to an adjacent fire zone, a high-rise building is allowed to have only one fire exit per zone. It should be noted that since the fire door can only be opened in one direction, if there is only one safety exit for the two adjacent partitions, it should be divided into two diaphragm fire doors on the firewall which are opened to the two sides respectively to meet the needs of mutual evacuation between the two partitions.
The most commonly used is normally closed fire door, its door has been in a closed state, personnel through the manual open, through the rear door to close; It is better to speed up evacuation if you install push-latch hardware. However, the normally closed fire door in the public channel has the disadvantages of affecting ventilation and lighting, blocking the line of sight and inconvenient access when used at ordinary times, such as poor management, the door closing device and the opening and closing hardware are often destroyed, failure, resulting in security risks. The normally open fire door solves the above problems. Usually, its door is fixed in the open position by the door fixer, and the door fixer is automatically released in case of fire, restoring the same function as the normally closed fire door. Due to the increase of the door fixer and automatic release system, sometimes with the automatic alarm system linkage, the use of normally open fire door is bound to increase the cost of the project. The current fire code does not make compulsory provisions on the opening and closing of fire doors, which can be determined by the designer considering the building standard, the characteristics of the use of occasions, the management needs of building users and economic factors
Fire doors according to the material: there are steel fire doors and wooden fire doors. These two kinds of fire doors are different in some details on the installation method. From the fire rating is also slightly different we must pay attention to the details when installing.
First of all, when the wooden fire door is installed, the size of the door frame should be less than 20mm of the hole, the foot of the door frame is buried under the ground 20mm, the door frame should be firmly fixed with the wall, and the vertical through Angle. It should pay strict attention to the same Angle and avoid planing or sawing. There should be no less than 3 fixed points on both sides of the door frame, and the spacing should not be greater than 800mm.
Secondly, in the installation process of steel fire door, considering the bending deformation of the door frame, it is necessary to support the width of the door frame with wooden beam, the foot of the door frame is buried 20mm below the ground, and then the embedded parts of the door frame and wall are welded. Holes are then cut in the wall at the top corner of the door frame and concrete filled with cement, sand, expanded perlite (1:2:5) is ready to be used once the concrete has set.
Requirements for airtight fire doors:
The national standards have clear requirements on the size of the gap at each lap of fire doors: for steel fire doors, the lap between the fan and the door frame should not be less than 10mm, and the gap between the fan and the door frame should not be greater than 4mm. After the fire door is installed and closed, the gap should not be too large, otherwise the sealing performance of the fire door is difficult to ensure, and it is difficult to reflect the effect of suppressing fire and smoke spread under fire conditions.
Therefore, the width of the fire door installation must be strictly controlled. According to these standard specifications installation, can ensure the effective role of the fire door to a certain extent, consumers in the employment of construction units must be on the side of supervision, to prevent them from cutting corners and other problems, so that the fire door will not cause casualties in the event of fire.
The new standard introduces the concept and requirements of partially insulated fireproof doors and non-insulated fireproof doors from international and foreign standards. The classification of fireproof doors is changed from the original classification only according to insulated fireproof doors to completely insulated fireproof doors (Class A), partially insulated fireproof doors (Class B) and non-insulated fireproof doors (class C). At the same time, the original class A, B, C fire door fire limit adjustment to 1.5h, 1.0h and 0.5h, enrich the types of fire door products, increase the choice of practical application, for only need fire door with partial insulation or fire integrity requirements of the application, you can choose partial heat insulation or non-heat insulation fire door. The new version of the standard also stipulates that if the door filling material, should use non-toxic and harmless fire insulation material to human body, reduce the impact on human health. These provisions not only make the setting of fire doors more reasonable, but also reduce the production cost and raw material consumption of fire doors. Meet the requirements of environmental protection and building a conservation-oriented society. At the same time, the new version of the standard also increases the content and requirements of steel and wood insulation fire doors and other materials insulation fire doors, providing a technical basis for the application of new materials, new technology and the production and inspection of new fire doors, and expanding the development space of fire door manufacturers.
Also known as completely insulated fire door, it can meet the requirements of fire resistance, heat insulation and fire integrity at the same time within the specified time, and the fire resistance grades are 0.5h(Class C), 1.0h(Class B), 1.5h(Class A) and 2.0h and 3.0h respectively.
Also known as partial heat insulation fire door, its fire resistance and heat insulation requirements are 0.5h, fire integrity levels are 1.0h, 1.5h, 2.0h, 3.0h.
Also known as non-heat proof fire door, there is no requirement for its fire resistance and heat insulation, and it only meets the requirements of fire integrity within the prescribed fire time, with fire integrity grades of 1.0h, 1.5h, 2.0h and 3.0h respectively. British BS standard, there is a non-insulated fire door content.
Gb16809-2008 “fire window” standard specifies the name, classification and code, specifications and models, technical requirements, test methods, inspection rules, marks, packaging, transportation and storage of fire window products, suitable for building with lighting function of steel insulation fire window, wood insulation fire window and steel wood composite insulation fire window. Other fire Windows can also refer to the execution. The new standard modifies the fire resistance parameters of fire Windows corresponding to the fire door standard. Compared with the 97 version of the standard, the main changes are as follows: expanded the scope of application of the standard; According to the international and foreign standards, the fire resistance classification method of fire Windows was modified, which was classified by “insulation (Class A)” and “non-insulation (Class C)”, and five fire resistance grades were added from 0.5h to 3.0h. The model compiling method of fire window is clarified. The quality requirements and test methods for fireproof glass used in fireproof Windows have been increased. The technical requirements and test methods such as wind pressure resistance and air tightness performance of fire window, distortion degree of movable window sash, static operating temperature of thermal sensitive element of movable fire window, closing reliability of window sash and automatic closing time of window sash are increased. At the same time, the sampling method and criterion of type test of fire window are modified. In the fire prevention design code for high-rise civil buildings, fire doors in addition to the role of ordinary doors, but also has the special functions of fire prevention, smoke insulation, fire suppression, evacuation protection.
On February 10, 2014, AQSIQ, Ministry of Public Security and CNCA jointly issued an announcement, deciding to implement mandatory product certification (namely “CCC certification”) for 59 kinds of fire products such as household fire alarm products, combustible gas alarm products, fire doors, portable fire extinguishers, fire emergency lighting and evacuation indication products.
It has been implemented since September 1, 2015. Fire control products listed in the catalogue of this compulsory product certification are not allowed to leave the factory, sell, import or use in other business activities without obtaining the compulsory product certification certificate or marking the compulsory product certification mark.